unb feb


By Howard Richards

New times call for new ideas.   In a desperate situation, like that of South Africa today, some people may be willing to consider the new ideas that are on offer, going on the lookout for measures that might work.  Others may have their minds already made up; they might be already sure that they know what miracle, if it would only happen, would save South Africa.  read more

campos de aroz en Mu Cang Chai vietnam

A General Solution to Economic Problems

I refer to the unsolved ones, not to those that are pretty satisfactorily solved already.   I focus on our two acronyms SF1 and SF2, where SF can be read as Staggering Fact or as Structural Fact. In the terminology of John Maynard Keynes SF1 generates a chronic shortfall of the inducement to invest.  Once a society comes to depend on investment-for-the-sake-of-production-for-the-sake-of-sale-for- the- sake-of-profit to meet its needs, investment becomes its drug.   It can never get enough of it.   SF2 generates a chronic insufficiency of effective demand. read more


Modernity’s ‘other’ and the transformation of the university

Howard Richards
University of Santiago, Chile


As its title suggests, this article suggests that universities should be transformed, and that they should be transformed by learning from modernity’s ‘other’. Every single word in the title and in this first sentence requires elaboration to explain how we1 use them and what we mean by them. It should be said at the outset that the decision to make ‘other’ singular instead of plural does not rest on a belief that modernity has only one other and that other is known. On the contrary, what is ‘other’ to modernity is varied, plural, and to a large extent unknown.